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Apr-05-2011 23:25printcomments

Comets, Dark Energy and the Mysterious Forces of Space

Remember Einstein’s statement, “Energy is mass and mass is energy.”
'A Farewell to Tails' by W. Pacholka. This was NASA'a Astronomy Picture of the Day December 15, 1997

(SAN DIEGO) - In a discussion on the “Daily Show” recently with Jon Stewart, astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson, Director of the Hayden Planetarium, said:

Neil deGrasse Tyson - Photo: Wikipedia

“When you are on the frontier of knowledge between what is known and unknown and reaching into that abyss, imagination is more important than knowledge. This is the creativity of discovery that not everyone has.”

And, in the March 9, 2006 “Nightline” program, he said:

“I’m a scientist and I like standing on the boundary between what is known and unknown and peering out into our ignorance and its that unknown that drives our curiosity.”

As in the case of the auroras and the rings of Saturn, the scientists are having difficulty in collecting particles from comets after 8 attempts and explaining the bizarre movement and speed of the particles involved. When the Shoemaker-Levy 9 comet impacted on Jupiter with the Hubble telescope and many highly sophisticated Earth based instruments trained on the impact site, no water was detected.

Dr. Donald K. Yeomans, Senior Research Scientist at JPL said:

“Two of the surprises were that sulfur was identified and water wasn’t. If a comet is 80% to 90% water, why didn’t we detect water?”

When the VEGA and Giotto spacecraft flew right through the tail of comet Halley, the NASA scientists reported:

“It showed that Halley’s comet contained less dust than the clean rooms that spacecraft manufacturers use to assemble spacecraft.”

Robert Farquhar Photo: NASA

It was also reported that the VEGA spacecraft was “Zapped by an electrical charge.” When the International Cometary Explorer zipped right through the Giocobini-Zinner comet tail in 1985, NASA flight Director, Robert Farquhar, said:

“We haven’t seen any dust at all. I’m very surprised.”

The scientists at the imaging team in Darmstadt, Germany, said:

“The nucleus of comet Halley is blacker than black coal. It’s like black velvet. The dullest paint we can manufacture on Earth reflects more sunlight.”

Still, the scientists continue to stubbornly adhere to their belief that it is dust particles brightly reflecting sunlight that creates the coma and tail of a comet. In an Oct. 13, 2008 NASA report, Dr. Bill Reach of NASA’s Spitzer Science Center at California Institute of Technology, said:

Dr. Bill Reach- SIRTF Science Center

“We’ve been studying comets for hundreds of years – 116 years in the case of comet Holmes – but still do not really understand them. However, we are getting closer.” After 100 years, you would think that the scientists would recognize the fact that their basic belief is wrong and they should consider an alternative explanation.

Most people don’t know that the comet tail sweeps around the Sun like the spoke of a wheel. So the tail is behind the comet nucleus while traveling toward the Sun and actually extends 100 million miles ahead of the nucleus when it is traveling away from the Sun.

The comet travels 122,000 per hour – or almost 100 times the muzzle velocity of a 38 caliber bullet. If it the tail consists of a single volume of particles that completes the entire orbit this means that after the particles of dust leaves the nucleus, the particles at the end of its 100 million mile long tail must gain 3 times the 122,000 mph speed it was traveling when it left the nucleus in order to sweep around to a position ahead of the nucleus while traveling in a radius 100 million miles farther from the Sun than the nucleus.. Obviously, this is a mathematical and physical impossibility. In order for the 40 cubic mile mass of comet H.

When I asked the scientists why the heat of the Sun did not melt the nucleus completely when it was near the Sun for so long when the Scientists at Darmstadt, Germany reported the surface temperature of Halley’s comet was 85 degrees F., only 50 million miles from the Sun?

In a letter dated April 22, 1986, JPL scientist, Stephan Edberg, wrote:

“An insulating layer of dust allows a comet’s nucleus to be warmer than the melting point of ice. Your refrigerator uses insulation to keep food cold.”

The late Dr. Brian Marsden Photo: Harold Dorwin

Then when I asked the scientists how come the insulating layer of dust did not keep the comet from erupting into a shiny cloud of dust when had receded 1.3 billion miles from the Sun where the ambient temperature was more than 340 degrees below zero for many months, the late Dr. Brian Marsden, of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, in a letter dated Feb. 19, 1993, wrote to me:

“I see no conflict between 50,000 miles near the Sun and 180,000 miles far away. Inside the asteroid belt, cometary activity is almost exclusively governed by water-ice vaporization. Beyond that distance, where comets are normally much less active, the water-ice is frozen solid and any activity can be expected to be due to vaporization of more volatile hydrogen-carbon-nitrogen-oxygen compounds.”

Henry Brinton, Director of Research Program Management Division of NASA, wrote to mein a letter dated June 10, 1996:

“Most of the dust particles are as fine as cigarette smoke. The structure of the nucleus is extremely porous. Thus heat penetrates slowly into the nucleus, even as it recedes from the Sun. When some heat reaches a pocket of more volatile ices, such as carbon monoxide, that ice sublimates (vaporizes) rapidly, flows through the pores and entrains dust with it, making a large cloud of dust as reported when comet Halley had receded far from the Sun in 1991.”

On April 4, 1985, the Copley Radio News Service issued a “Wireless Flash” to their radio talk show host subscribers stating:

“The reasoning goes that as the Sun heats the snowball it sheds molecules and dust that are pushed by the solar wind into two separate tails by sunlight and the solar wind. But retired inventor and amateur astronomer Edsel Chromie says that’s a bunch of malarkey. Instead, Chromie’s theory is based on the concept of static electricity. He says Halley’s comet has a weak static electricity charge. When the comet breaks the magnetic lines of force of the Sun at high speed, it stimulates the molecules of gases already in its path to a visible glow. Chromie says it’s not much different than the natural forces that cause lightning or the phenomenon known as the aurora borealis.

This resulted in live radio discussions via telephone with many radio talk show hosts. Professor John H. Simonetti of Virginia Polytechnic University heard my discussion with talk show host Gary Minter on station WFIR in Roanoke, Va. In a letter he wrote to me dated Feb. 24, 1991 -- just two weeks before it was stated that Halley’s comet had erupted into a shiny dust cloud 180,000 miles across -- he stated:

Voyager 2 launch. Photo: NASA

Voyager 1 launch. Photo: NASA

“Periodic returning comets become less spectacular (dimmer) with successive passages, which is consistent with their loss of material on each passage.” It was almost immediately after purportedly losing 'material' for many months within the inner solar system that Halley’s comet “erupted” into a much more 'spectacular' size and brightness than it managed to create just months earlier when it was more than a billion miles closer to the Sun. What happened to the protection of “The insulating layer of dust”?

An article published in the San Diego Union on Aug. 12, 1995 titled, “Gusts of Sun” regarding data gathered by the Ulysses spacecraft, stated:

“Last year, radio receivers on board both Voyagers registered a loud burst that researchers believe was the crash of a large ejection of solar plasma colliding with the heliopause. Computer analysis of the bursts by Paulette Liewer, a theorist at JPL, indicated that the boundary lies about 1.5 billion miles from the Sun.”

It is not just a coincidence that this is the exact distance Halley’s comet was when it erupted into a shiny cloud of dust 180,000 miles across. So, it was not an explosion but a bright glow of atoms of gases created by the comet encountering the magnetic field current energy of the heliopause and generating an exceptionally intensified charge of static electricity that created the immense and bright glow, not the heat of the Sun.

The comet on the evening of its closest approach to
Earth on 25 March 1996.
Courtesy: Wikipedia

On April 5, 1996, KTLA television news broadcast, NASA reported they were surprised because comet Hyakutake was emitting X-ray energy at a rate 100 times higher than it should, but that is alright because NASA scientists like to figure these things out. Comet Hyakutake was measured as only 2 miles across and scientists were trying to determine whether the X-rays were coming from the comet or the Sun.

Nothing more has been reported regarding “figuring out” this anomaly but it should be obvious that this X-ray energy does not come from either one but is generated between the comet nucleus and the Sun via the nucleus traveling at high speed through the magnetic field current radiated from the Sun. This is similar to the spark produced between your finger and another object after you walked across a carpet when the humidity is low.

In an interview with a local reporter published in the local newspaper, “The Daily Californian”, regarding my theory about comets on Dec. 26, 1985, Astronomer Clint Hatchett of the Reuben Fleet Science Center, said:

“Mr. Chromie is an interesting character with some different ideas. His idea I can’t agree with is that the atoms in space are glowing because the magnetic field around the nucleus is exciting them to glow and that’s really farfetched because there isn’t that much material out there to glow.”

Then, almost 20 years later the scientists reported only recently discovering “A form of matter we can’t see – dark matter”. In a June 22, 2004 program broadcast on KPBS titled “The Dark Side of the Universe”, narrated by Alan Alda, Dr. Michael Turner of the University of Chicago, said:

“I think what you are starting to see is that we don’t know very much about it at all. We need some help. We just don’t know what it is; a mysterious force out there in space that literally comes out of nowhere. It’s pushing the universe apart faster and faster. But astronomers now suspect that matter we can see in the universe resulted from a titanic struggle between a form of matter we can’t see, dark matter, and a force, dark energy that we’ve only recently detected. Together, dark energy and dark matter rule our universe.”

It is exactly this undetectable magnetic field current that I have been demonstrating and trying to apprise the scientists the importance of for over 30 years that is the dark energy and also the dark matter. Remember Einstein’s statement, “Energy is mass and mass is energy.”

Also from Edsel Chromie: Aurora Borealis & Magnetic Storms in an Accelerating, Expanding Universe - Edsel Chromie for

Edsel Chromie is a Detroit Michigan native who moved to San Diego in 1965. Edsel is a World War Two Navy veteran who served as a motor machinists mate on diesel electric systems where he learned about the magnetic field current swirling around the primary current flow through a wire as a part of Navy training to trace the direction of flow of the electricity in case of torpedo damage.

This led to Edsel's unique explanations of many phenomena of the universe. He also has four approved patents on solar energy and Sun tracking systems. Today Edsel writes about this unique set of life experiences for, conveying information that seems especially relevant as nuclear disaster, potential changes in the earth's atmosphere, and what many view as an increasing level of natural disasters continue to dominate headlines. Perhaps many of the answers are on hand, yet unaccepted by the scientific community. You can write to Ed Chromie at this address:

Comments Leave a comment on this story.

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Anonymous April 13, 2011 6:09 pm (Pacific time)

I found some dark matter in my yard today as I was raking moss. I guess it fell from the sky last night, because when I was raking moss in the same area yesterday it was not there. Considering that it's over 9 feet tall, and a perfect circle (I think it's a perfect circle), with a 19 foot diameter, I don't think I would have overlooked it. But then when I'm on a moss venture, I get pretty focused on that task. What should I do with it? Can I save it for next winter as a heat source? Or maybe it can be used as fuel in my vespa? It tastes salty, should I have not tasted it? Is it radioactive? Should I get those iodine pills? Now I'm getting all worked digestion is in flux.

Edsel Chromie April 10, 2011 3:37 pm (Pacific time)

Thank you JDA. Again, the compass needle aligns itself with the magnetic field current flow swirling around the primary electrical flow through the wire. The electrical flow is through the wire but it is strictly a magnetic field current flowing around the wire.

JDA April 10, 2011 12:27 pm (Pacific time)

I also applaud your open mind, Edsel. My articles here deal with controversial subjects, but as an EE graduate, I know that the relationships of electromagnetism are immutable and not open to interpretation. Our technology, and in a sense our lives, depend on this fact. Most people won't mind if you loosely describe current as a flow of energy, but the actual definition is a flow of electric charge, which magnetic flux isn't. To try to work with those interpretations would plunge the world of electronics into chaos, and the success of Nikola Tesla would never have been achieved if his understanding of electromagnetism had been similarly corrupted. While the basis of electronic theory is well understood, there are realms such as you describe where the laws are bent; approaching the speed of light and black holes come to mind, but Einstein's theories deal with these seemingly anomolous circumstances. I totally agree with challenging conventional wisdom, but one needs hard evidence to achieve credibility.

Amanda Leduc April 8, 2011 7:38 pm (Pacific time)

Very interesting topic. We need to do more to understand space.

Dexter April 8, 2011 3:04 pm (Pacific time)

You are welcome Edsel :) Hope to see some more of you're work on here in the near future.

Edsel Chromie April 8, 2011 11:42 am (Pacific time)

Thank you Dexter. JAD and George Shaw's comments can be answered together. The reason similar theories are not publicized is because the media protocol requires the approval of a credible scientists before they will publish articles pertaining to science. Tim King should be commended for his open mind and decision to publish my concept without the approval of a credible scientist. JAD is a typical deterrant by expecting that theories should comply strictly with the conventional wisdom and gospel of the scientific community without any deviation new ideas. My reerence to the electrostatic electricity of walking across carpeting was for the purpose of pointing out the storage of static electricity in flesh and bone and the bright spark in the atmospheric gases. Magnetic fields are a current flow. A compass does not point to the North pole per se, the needle of a compass aligns with the magnetic field current flowing toward the North pole.

Dexter April 8, 2011 12:45 am (Pacific time)

It's great to see such a complex story written out in such a interesting digestible way. Dark matter has been quiet the topic on the discovery channel in recent years. It's always exciting when Scientist discover new things beyond are own reach. Also it's pretty reassuring that they can see that far ahead these least it gives us a heads up on what's lurking behind that dark corner that is the abyss of deep space

JDA April 7, 2011 9:45 pm (Pacific time)

Interesting. You and Terrence should collaborate on an article sometime. I suspect you're on to something with the comet anomolies, but every hypothesis has to start somewhere. Where I differ with your interpretation starts with the static charge from walking across a carpet - that's an electrostatic phenomenon. not magnetic, caused by free electrons moving to your body because of friction. A comet moving through space receives relatively little energy from the sun's magnetic field. Even the force of gravity is very weak, and is only appreciable because of the huge mass of planets that creates it. X-rays are seldom generated from cutting through lines of flux, if ever. They can be generated in a CRT if the anode voltage is too high. Also, magnetic field current is a misnomer; fields aren't current, but can create a current when they interact with conductors. Is the dark energy you're referring to antimatter? Antimatter has been predicted by calculations done by Stephen Hawking and others, possibly it is the compliment of our known universe, like the other side of a coin. Yes, E=MC2, but even so, magnetism is but one small aspect of our dynamic reality.

George Shaw April 7, 2011 3:57 pm (Pacific time)

What is the reason for the scientific community keeping this information out of circulation? It seems they will only learn when outside events prove existing theories, they are losing valuable time in the process, think about it.

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